En los últimos 25 años, los gobiernos en distintas partes del mundo han adoptado tecnología e implementado estrategias de Gobierno Electrónico y de Gobierno Digital, produciendo distintos tipos de innovaciones y logrando distintos tipos de impacto en sus propias organizaciones y en la calidad de vida de los ciudadanos. Este artículo presenta la evolución de Gobierno Digital, explica como los gobiernos tratan de buscar soluciones digitales innovadoras para dar respuesta a las presiones que enfrentan y como absorben e institucionalizan las innovaciones. Asimismo, analiza brevemente el impacto de estas innovaciones en los ciudadanos y discute el nuevo paradigma de Ciudades Inteligentes como una forma de respuesta de los gobiernos locales en la etapa más avanzada de Gobierno Digital.
Guaranteeingthatassembledcomponentswillbehaveasrequiredisoneofthemain aspects in working with Component-Based Development. In this paper we present a formal approach for tackling this problem by applying the concept of bisimulation, originally presented in the study of concurrency theory. Bisimulation allows us to abstract details that are irrelevant from the behavioral point of view, such as data representations and implementation structures, providing a powerful formalism for proving software correctness properties. Thus, our approach facilitates to demonstrate the behavioral equivalence between the integrated system and the required specification. We introduce these concepts with the help of an example described in RAISE.
There are two main activities in Component-Based De- velopment: component development, where we build li- braries for general use, and component integration, where we assemble an application from existing components. In this work, we analyze how to apply algebraic specifications with refinement to component development. So we restrict our research to the use of modules that are described as class expressions in a formal specification language, and we present several refinement steps for component devel- opment, introducing in each one design decisions and im- plementation details. This evolution starts from the initial specification of a component as an abstract module, and finishes with the final deployment as fully implemented code.
The usage of formal tools helps to assure the correct- ness of each step, and provides the ground to introduce complementary techniques, such as bisimulations, for the process of component integration.
The paper presents a formal model for a knowledge repository shared by members of a Virtual Community of Practice (VCPs), describes how the repository can be used to underpin collaborative problem solving, and how to build computer support for such processes. The repository comprises the resources used and developed by VCPs particularly through problem solving. As a case study, the paper illustrates how the problem solving process and the underlying repository can be applied in disaster prevention and handling. The repository and the process are formally described using the RAISE Specification Language.
The methodologies for agile software development are fundamentally based on the collaboration with software users during the entire development process, the simplicity to adapt the product to changes in requirements, and on the incremental product delivery. Based on the Agile Manifesto, they have been accepted and are successfully used in projects where the detailed requirements are unknown at first and are identified during the development process from the interactions with the users and the feedback thus obtained. In this paper, we propose an evaluation framework for the methodologies for agile software development. This framework is applied in detail to two of them -Scrum and eXtreme Programming (XP). The definition of this quantitative framework is innovative, especially because it allows the evaluation of how the agile methodologies satisfy the basic principles defined by the Agile Manifesto, thus it can be used when deciding which methodology to adopt in a particular project.
The increasing use of social media by governments for improving citizen access to information, participation of stakeholders in policy processes and delivery of customer-focused services are among the defining features of the so-called “Governance 2.0” phenomenon. Another feature is the interaction between existing government networks and social networks of citizens and policy actors in order to disseminate government information and seek contributions from citizens and other actors to policies, decisions and services. This article examines the semantic issues associated with the emerging Governance 2.0 networks. It evolves an architectural framework to guide governments and their agencies in developing semantic interoperability capabilities. We approach the problem by first developing a conceptual model for analyzing semantic interoperability requirements in general. Next, we provide a case study to generate interesting scenarios and identify concrete semantic interoperability issues arising from the interactions between citizens, businesses and government through traditional and electronic channels and different forms of social media. Subsequently, we present a Semantic Interoperability Architecture Framework to address these issues based on existing government semantic interoperability frameworks and semantic standards for Web 2.0. After validating the prescribed framework, we discuss how it could be used in practice by governments.
Recognized as a critical factor for the whole-of-government capability, many governments have initiated Enterprise Architectures (EA) programs. However, while there is no shortage of EA frameworks, the understanding of what makes EA practice effective in a government enterprise is limited. This paper presents the results of empirical research aimed at determining the key factors for raising the maturity of the Government Enterprise Architecture (GEA) practice, part of an effort to guide policy-makers of a particular government on how to develop GEA capabilities in its agencies. By analyzing data from a survey involving 33 agencies, the relative importance of factors like top management commitment, participation of business units and effectiveness of project governance structures on the maturity of the GEA practice was determined. The results confirm that management commitment and participation of business units are critical factors, which in turn are influenced by the perceived usefulness of the GEA efforts.
Social networks have grown exponentially in use and have gained a remarkable impact on the society as a whole. In particular, microblogging platforms such as Twitter have become important tools to assess public opinion on different issues. Recently, some approaches for assessing Twitter messages have been developed. However, such approaches have an important limitation, as they do not take into account contradictory and potentially inconsistent information which might emerge from relevant messages. We contend that the information made available in Twitter can be useful for modeling arguments which emerge bottom-up from the social interaction associated with such messages, thus enabling an integration between Twitter and defeasible argumentation. In this paper, we outline the main elements characterizing this integration in the context of a particular e-government platform (Decide 2.0). As a result, we will be able to obtain an “opinion tree”, rooted in the first original query, in a similar way as done with dialectical trees in argumentation. The main contribution of this paper is the proposal of a method for building arguments from aggregated opinions. This leads to the design of a novel platform that makes it possible to explore collective opinions in a more meaningful and systematic manner.
Governments from all over the world are looking for ways to reduce costs while at the same time to stimulate innovation. While pursuing both objectives, governments face a major challenge—to operate in a connected environment, engage stakeholders and solve societal problems by utilizing new methods, tools, practices and governance models. As result, fundamental changes are taking place on how government operates. Such changes are under the larger umbrella of ‘lean government’ (l-Government). Lean government is a new wave which is appearing as a response to traditional approaches—like electronic government (e-Government) and transformational government (t-Government), and aims at reducing the complexity of the public sector by simplifying and streamlining organizational structures and processes, at the same time at stimulating innovation by mobilizing stakeholders. In l-Government, public organizations introduce platforms facilitating innovation and interactions with other public organizations, business and citizens, and focus on their orchestration role. Experimentation, assessment and gradual improvement based on user requirements are key factors for realizing l-Government.
Electronic Governance (EGOV) research studies the use of Information and Communication Technologies to improve governance processes. Sustainable Development (SD) research studies possible development routes that satisfy the needs of the present generation without compromising the ability of the future generations to meet their own needs. Despite substantial progress in advancing both domains independently, little research exists at their intersection — how to utilize EGOV in support of SD. We call this intersection Electronic Governance for Sustainable Development (EGOV4SD). This paper: 1) proposes a conceptual framework for EGOV4SD, 2) proposes EGOV4SD research assessment framework and 3) applies both frameworks to determine the state of EGOV4SD research. The main contribution of the paper is establishing a foundation for EGOV4SD research.
During recent years, we have witnessed revolutionary developments of Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) and their impact on people’s lives. The way in which such developments contribute to socio-economic development and empowering people depends highly on the absorptive capacity of different societies. While in developed countries, their IT-ecosystems have the capacity for enriching themselves through empowered actors and enhanced interactions and, in turn, for continuous growth; in developing countries, such eco-systems face challenges to produce similar results. However, the challenges faced, particularly by the countries in the Global South; in Asia, Africa and Latin America, can be transformed into opportunities if countries are able to leapfrog in the learning process and develop their human and institutional capacities. In this context, capacity-building programs on ICT for Development (ICT4D), such as Strengthening Information Society Research Capacity Alliance (SIRCA), are of the upmost importance to developing countries. In this introduction to the SIRCA special issue of The Electronic Journal of Information Systems in Developing Countries we discuss the evolution of ICT4D policy and research, explain the experience of the SIRCA II Program, and summarizes the lessons learnt from it.
Abstract. The paper presents a measurement framework for assessing the e- Governance maturity level of countries through the analysis of municipal websites. The paper also introduces the results of a survey carried out to apply and validate the framework. Applied to municipal websites of different countries, the framework considers websites content and design. For each country, the sample included three websites of local governments belonging to regions with low, medium and high population, respectively. The country measure was calculated based on the average obtained by the municipal websites adjusted by a correction factor based on the compliance of general features. The numerical values obtained by countries allow comparing their degree of e-Governance maturity and ranking them accordingly. The contribution of this paper is to present a novel approach for assessing e- Governance maturity of countries based on analyzing how electronic public services are delivered through municipal websites to citizens living in different populated areas.
nformation sharing (IS) is a key capability required for one-stop and networked government, responding to a variety of intra-organizational, inter-organizational, or cross-national needs like sharing service-related information between parties involved in the delivery of seamless services, sharing information on available resources to enable whole-of-government response to emergencies, etc. Despite its importance, the IS capability is not common for governments due to various technical, organizational, cultural, and other barriers which are generally difficult to address by individual agencies. However, developing such capabilities is a challenging task which requires government-wide coordination, explicit policies and strategies, and concrete implementation frameworks. At the same time, reconciling existing theoretical frameworks with the IS practice can be difficult due to the differences in conceptions and abstraction levels. In order to address such difficulties, this chapter proposes a conceptual framework to guide the development of Government Information Sharing (GIS) policies, strategies, and implementations. By integrating theoretical frameworks and the GIS practice, the framework adopts a holistic view on the GIS problem, highlights the main areas for policy intervention, and provides policy makers and government managers with conceptual clarity on the GIS problem.
Public consultation is a formal mechanism of social participation where government invites citizens to participate in policymaking. Increasingly, public consultations are being held online, where Web 2.0 tools and other information and communication technology (ICT) tools become central to understand the design of virtual spaces for government-citizen interaction. Through the analysis of two case studies from Brazil—the “Gabinete Digital” and the “Marco Civil Regulatório” initiatives—this chapter discusses how online public consultation spaces are designed, using a combination of ICTs. Based on three frameworks of deliberative theory and characteristics of Web 2.0 tools, the aim of our paper is studying what aspects of Web 2.0 tools are useful for online consultation and what democratic environments they might generate when combined. The main contribution of this work is raising awareness on how the usage of certain Web 2.0 tools can reinforce or diminish some attributes of political communication and therefore, as a result, produce different models of online democratic communication.
The global urban population is expected to grow by 63 percent between 2014 and 2050 – compared to an overall global population growth of 32 percent during the same period. Megacities with over 20-million inhabitants will see the fastest increase in population – and at least 13 new megacities are expected by 2030, in addition to the 28 existing today. The fastest growing urban centres contain around one-million inhabitants, and are located in lower-middle-income countries in Asia and Africa.
The anticipated growth of cities creates unprecedented sustainability challenges. Increasing demands for energy, water, sanitation, education, healthcare, housing, transport, and public services are testing the limits of city infrastructure. Smart Cities have emerged as a response to the challenges and opportunities created by rapid urbanization. Smart Cities deploy intelligent urban systems to serve socio-economic and ecological development, improve quality of life, and address the origins of social instability in cities.
This report examines how Smart Cities can advance sustainability in different development situations.
This paper proposes the Digital Public Service Innovation Framework that extends the ” standard ” provision of digital public services according to the emerging, enhanced, transactional and connected stages underpinning the United Nations Global e-Government Survey, with seven example ” innovations ” in digital public service delivery – transparent, participatory, anticipatory, personalized, co-created, context-aware and context-smart. Unlike the ” standard ” provisions, innovations in digital public service delivery are open-ended – new forms may continuously emerge in response to new policy demands and technological progress, and are non-linear – one innovation may or may not depend on others. The framework builds on the foundations of public sector innovation and Digital Government Evolution model. In line with the latter, the paper equips each innovation with sharp logical characterization, body of research literature and real-life cases from around the world to simultaneously serve the illustration and validation goals. The paper also identifies some policy implications of the framework, covering a broad range of issues from infrastructure, capacity, ecosystem and partnerships, to inclusion, value, channels, security, privacy and authentication.
Based on the latest trends of government digitization efforts, this paper presents a survey of the literature illustrating how governments are using Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) to deliver public services pursuing concrete development goals and taking into account specific needs of the local context. Based on the survey, we illustrate examples of context-specific public service delivery and propose a research framework to guide future research on the area. The relevance of this work relies on the latest commitment of governments to pursue the 2030 development agenda, since the framework provides a roadmap to further investigate how to locally design public services to achieve sustainable development goals leveraging on ICT.